NVFR Guide

From VATSIM Germany
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Introdution

The "Durchführungsverordnung (EU) Nr. 923/2012 vom 26. September 2012 zur Festlegung gemeinsamer Luftverkehrsregeln und Betriebsvorschriften für Dienste und Verfahren der Flugsicherung", short SERA - Standardised European Rules of the Air, uniformly regulates the conditions for performing aircraft movements in Europe. Nevertheless, the regulation allows the member states a certain amount of freedom to shape their own regulations. For example, the execution of flights under visual flight rules (VFR) at night is uniformly regulated, but their basic permissibility is subject to the authority (see SERA.5005).

For this purpose the Bundesaufsichtsamt für Flugsicherung released Nachrichten für Luftfahrer (NfL) 1-249-14, which authorize visual flights at night (see NfL 1-249-14).

In addition, the NfL 1-250-14 also allows the execution of special flights under visual flight rules in control zones at night(see NfL 1-250-14).

Both permissions were then also included in the new Luftverkehrs-Ordnung (LuftVO) in paragraph § 36 Flüge nach Sichtflugregeln bei Nacht which became effective on 06.11.2015.

SERA Section 5 thus provides the framework conditions for flights following visual flight rules at night.

For Germany, this results in a period between half an hour after sunset and half an hour before sunrise.

In the following, these rules are briefly presented and their application in Germany is explained. Afterwards you will find the documentation of an example flight to illustrate the above mentioned.


Basic Conditions

Mandatory Flight Plans

If the flight goes beyond the area surrounding the airfield, a flight plan must be submitted in accordance with SERA.5005 letter c) No. 1 (see also SERA.4001 letter b) No. 6). This should not be based on geographical points but should use radio navigation aids such as VORs and NDBs. This is because it is difficult to find exactly one church tower, especially at night. Larger inland waters such as the Rhine, on the other hand, are easy to fly to. However, the flight plan obligation does not mean that the flight must be carried out as under instrument flight rules (IFR). The pilot must continue to observe visual flight weather conditions and maintain the prescribed distances from clouds. Ultimately, the flight plan is for the safety of the crew and primarily serves as a guide for the search and rescue service in emergency situations. The flight plan should contain all information according to SERA.4005 letter a).

It still remains to be clarified what is meant in the area surrounding the airport. According to SERA Article 2 No. 9, an aircraft is "in the vicinity of an aerodrome when, among other things, it is in, entering or leaving an aerodrome circuit". So if we have left the aerodrome circuit and can no longer see the traffic on the aerodrome, we are no longer in the vicinity of the aerodrome and need a flight plan. This is not required for traffic circuits at night.

However, since VFR flights at night are not subject to an ATC clearance (see SERA.5005: no mention of clearances to be obtained and SERA.4001(b): VFR flights at night do not belong to the category of flight under ATC), the flight through airspace subject to an ATC clearance (airspace C, D, D(CTR)) must be cleared in the same way as by day.


Mandatory Transponder

To ensure that the own position can be reliably located, a transponder mode S is mandatory at night in controlled airspace (C, D, E). In your own interest, it is advisable to carry such a transponder in uncontrolled airspace (G) and switch it on. Unless otherwise instructed by the controller in charge, it must be set to transponder code 7000. However, individual transponder codes may be issued to enable better differentiation between aircraft.


Radio Communication

Throughout the whole flight, two way radio communication with a radar station must be maintained.


Separation

With SERA, the radar separation of NVFR flights in control zones no longer applies. A radar separation is only ensured in airspace C between VFR and IFR, as is the case for daytime visual flights (cf. SERA.8005 letter b) No. 3).

There is also no separation from the night low-flying system in airspace G! In your own interest, you should therefore carefully study the NOTAMs for the flight route.


Meteorological Conditions

In principle, the visible weather conditions from SERA.5001 Table S5-1 with the supplement from LuftVO § 40 remain unchanged. However, these are supplemented by further requirements in SERA.5005 letter c) No. 3:

  1. The main cloud base must not be less than 450 m (1500 ft).
  2. The pilot must have uninterrupted ground visibility in airspaces of Class B, C, D, E, F and G at and below 900 m (3000 ft) above MSL (Main Sea Level) or 300 m (1000 ft) above ground - the greater height being decisive.
  3. For helicopters operating in Class F and G airspace at and below 900 m (3000 ft) above MSL (Main Sea Level) or 300 m (1000 ft) above ground level, whichever is the greater, visibility shall be at least 3 km, provided that visibility is uninterrupted and the speed of flight is such that timely evasive action is taken to avoid collision.


Altitude

In order to protect the pilot and reduce noise pollution, the following minimum altitudes are prescribed for VFR flights at night (see SERA.5005 letter c) No. 5).

  1. Above high terrain or in mountainous areas, flights must be conducted at an altitude of at least 600 m (2000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 8 km from the assumed location of the aircraft.
  2. In non-mountainous areas, an altitude of 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 8 km is sufficient.


Extra Fuel

As it may take longer at night to find the desired destination, a minimum fuel reserve of 45 minutes is required.


Example Flight

Example NVFR Flight from Cologne/Bonn to Essen/Mülheim and back:

Route


Flight from Cologne to Essen

Vatsim Flightplan

Flight Type VFR Route
Departure Airport EDDK WYP DCT BAM (3)
Destination Airport EDLE
Alternate Airport EDDL
Departure Time 2000
Time Enroute 0 28 Remarks
Fuel Available 2 00 /v/ RMK/VFR NACHT (1)
Cruise Speed 90
Cruise Altitude 2000 (2)

(1) Damit der Lotse bei VATSIM auch weiß, dass wir bei Nacht fliegen möchten. Grundsätzlich gehen die Lotsen immer davon aus, dass VFR Flüge bei Tageslicht durchgeführt werden. Daher schreiben wir den Hinweis in die Remarks.

(2) Die Reiseflughöhe wurde hier den Verhältnissen der Luftraumstruktur um Düsseldorf und Köln Rechnung getragen und so mit 2000 Fuß gewählt. So ist ein Durchfliegen von Luftraum C nicht nötig.

(3) Die Route orientiert sich dabei an den beiden Navigationsfeuern Barmen (113.60 BAM) und Wipper (109.60 WYP) VOR.


Im folgenden Funkbeispiel sind Meldungen des jeweiligen Lotsen in Grau hinterlegt. Die Sprechgruppen wurde der AIP GEN 3.4 entnommen.

Deutsch
Englisch
Köln/Bonn Rollkontrolle (Ground)
Köln/Bonn Rollkontrolle D-EABC. Köln/Bonn Ground D-EABC.
D-EABC Köln/Bonn Rollkontrolle D-EABC Köln/Bonn Ground
D-EABC Cessna 172 Abstellplatz der allgemeinen Luftfahrt INFORMATION Golf ERBITTE ROLLEN. D-EABC Cessna 172 GAT parking INFORMATION Golf REQUESTING TAXI.
Sinnvollerweise sollte nun eine Koordination zwischen dem Turm und Radar stattfinden. So kann Radar optional jetzt schon die Vergabe eines SQUAWK anweisen. Der Pilot kann mit einem "Standby, I call you back." vertröstet werden.
D-EABC SQUAWK 2234 ROLLEN SIE ZUM ROLLHALT PISTE 14R ÜBER Tango und Bravo. D-EABC SQUAWK 2234 TAXI TO HOLDING POINT RUNWAY 14R VIA Tango and Bravo.
D-EABC SQUAWK 2234 ROLLE ZUM ROLLHALT PISTE 14R ÜBER Tango und Bravo. D-EABC SQUAWK 2234 TAXIING TO HOLDING POINT RUNWAY 14R VIA Tango and Bravo.
D-EABC RUFEN SIE Köln Turm auf 124.975. D-EABC CONTACT Köln Tower on 124.975.
D-EABC RUFE Köln Turm 124.975. D-EABC CONTACTING Köln Tower 124.975.
Köln/Bonn Turm (Tower)
Köln Turm D-EABC. Köln Tower D-EABC.
D-EABC Köln Turm, VERLASSEN SIE KONTROLLZONE ÜBER November, WIND 130 GRAD 4 KNOTEN PISTE 14R START FREI. D-EABC Köln Tower, LEAVE CONTROL ZONE VIA November, WIND 130 DEGREES 4 KNOTS RUNWAY 14R CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
D-EABC VERLASSE KONTROLLZONE ÜBER November, PISTE 14R START FREI. D-EABC LEAVING CONTROL ZONE VIA November RUNWAY 14R CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
D-EABC November HÖHE 2000 FUSS. D-EABC November ALTITUDE 2000 FEET.
D-EABC RUFEN SIE Langen Radar 135.35. D-EABC CONTACT Langen Radar 135.35.
D-EABC RUFE Langen Radar 135.35. D-EABC CONTACTING Langen Radar 135.35.
Langen Radar Köln/Bonn Arrival
Langen Radar D-EABC November HÖHE 2000 FUSS. Langen Radar D-EABC November ALTITUDE 2000 FEET.
D-EABC Langen Radar RADARKONTAKT. D-EABC RADAR CONTACT.
In dieser Phase des Fluges können Verkehrsinformationen etc. gegeben werden.
D-EABC RUFEN SIE Langen Radar 128.55. D-EABC CONTACT Langen Radar 128.55.
D-EABC RUFE Langen Radar 128.55. D-EABC CONTACTING Langen Radar 128.55.
Langen Radar Düsseldorf Arrival
Langen Radar D-EABC 15NM südlich Barmen VOR HÖHE 2000 FUSS. Langen Radar D-EABC 15NM south of Barmen VOR ALTITUDE 2000 FEET.
D-EABC Langen Radar RADARKONTAKT D-EABC Langen Radar RADAR CONTACT
D-EABC RUFEN SIE Essen Info 119.75. D-EABC CONTACT Essen Info 119.75.
D-EABC RUFE Essen Info 119.75. D-EABC CONTACTING Essen Info 119.75.
Essen/Mülheim Info
Essen Info D-EABC. Essen Info D-EABC.
D-EABC Essen Info. D-EABC Essen Info.
D-EABC Cessna 172 5NM südöstlich des Platzes HÖHE 1200 FUSS ZUR LANDUNG. D-EABC Cessna 172 5NM south-eastern of airfield ALTITUDE 1200 FEET FOR LANDING.
D-EABC PISTE 25 Wetter Düsseldorf WIND 200 GRAD 2 KNOTEN QNH 1016 kein Verkehr am Platz. D-EABC RUNWAY 25 weather Düsseldorf WIND 200 DEGREES 2 KNOTS QNH 1016 no other traffic.
D-EABC über dem Platz HÖHE 1200 FUSS. D-EABC above airfield ALTITUDE 1200 FEET.
D-EABC RECHTER GEGENANFLUG PISTE 25. D-EABC RIGHT DOWNWIND RUNWAY 25.
D-EABC RECHTER QUERANFLUG PISTE 25. D-EABC RIGHT BASE RUNWAY 25.
D-EABC ENDANFLUG PISTE 25. D-EABC FINAL RUNWAY 25.
D-EABC WIND Düsseldorf 200 GRAD 2 KNOTEN. D-EABC WIND Düsseldorf 200 DEGREES 2 KNOTS.
D-EABC PISTE 25 VERLASSEN. D-EABC RUNWAY 25 VACATED.


Flug von Essen nach Köln

Nach einem ausgiebigen Abendessen machen wir uns auf den Weg zurück zur Domstadt:

Flight Type VFR Route
Departure Airport EDLE BAM DCT WYP
Destination Airport EDDK
Alternate Airport EDDL
Departure Time 2000
Time Enroute 0 28 Remarks
Fuel Available 2 00 /v/ RMK/VFR NACHT
Cruise Speed 90
Cruise Altitude 200


Deutsch
Englisch
Essen/Mülheim Info
Essen Info D-EABC. Essen Info D-EABC.
D-EABC Essen Info. D-EABC Essen Info.
D-EABC Vorfeldposition VFR NACH Köln. D-EABC apron VFR TO Köln.
D-EABC PISTE 25 Wetter Düsseldorf WIND 200 GRAD 2 KNOTEN QNH 1016 kein Verkehr am Platz. D-EABC RUNWAY 25 weather Düsseldorf WIND 200 DEGREES 2 KNOTS QNH 1016 no other traffic.
D-EABC ROLLE ZUM Rollhalt Piste 25 D-EABC TAXIING TO holding point runway 25.
D-EABC ABFLUGBEREIT. D-EABC READY FOR DEPARTURE.
D-EABC WIND Düsseldorf 200 GRAD 2 KNOTEN. D-EABC WIND Düsseldorf 200 DEGREES 2 KNOTS.
D-EABC STARTE. D-EABC TAKING OF.
D-EABC verlasse die Platzrunde Richtung Südosten, VERLASSE IHRE FREQUENZ. D-EABC leaving traffic circuit direction south-east, LEAVING YOUR FREQUENCY.
Langen Radar Düsseldorf Arrival
Langen Radar D-EABC Langen Radar D-EABC
D-EABC Langen Radar D-EABC Langen Radar
D-EABC Cessna 172 8NM nordwestlich Barmen VOR VFR HÖHE 1200 FUSS NACH Köln. D-EABC Cessna 172 8NM north-west Barmen VOR VFR ALTITUDE 1200 FEET TO Köln.
D-EABC SQUAWK 2234. D-EABC SQUAWK 2234.
D-EABC SQUAWK 2234 D-EABC SQUAWK 2234
D-EABC RADARKONTAKT D-EABC RADAR CONTACT
D-EABC RUFEN SIE Langen Radar 135.35. D-EABC CONTACT Langen Radar 135.35.
D-EABC RUFE Langen Radar 135.35. D-EABC CONTACTING Langen Radar 135.35.
Langen Radar Köln/Bonn Arrival
Langen Radar D-EABC 15NM nördlich Wipper VOR HÖHE 2000 FUSS. Langen Radar D-EABC 15NM north Wipper VOR ALTITUDE 2000 FEET.
D-EABC Langen Radar RADARKONTAKT. D-EABC Langen Radar RADAR CONTACT.
D-EABC RUFEN SIE Köln Turm 124.97. D-EABC CONTACT Köln Tower 124.97.
D-EABC RUFE Köln Turm 124.97. D-EABC CONTACTING Köln Tower 124.97.
Köln/Bonn Turm (Tower)
Köln Turm D-EABC. Köln Tower D-EABC.
D-EABC Köln Turm D-EABC Köln Tower
D-EABC Cessna 172 VFR 5NM nordöstlich November HÖHE 2000 FUSS ZUR LANDUNG. D-EABC Cessna 172 VFR 5NM north-east November ALTITUDE 2000 FEET FOR LANDING.
D-EABC FLIEGEN SIE IN DIE KONTROLLZONE ÜBER November PISTE 14L 14R QNH 1017 DANACH FLIEGEN SIE IN DEN Queranflug PISTE 14R. D-EABC ENTER CONTROL ZONE VIA November RUNWAY 14L 14R QNH 1017 THEREAFTER JOIN base RUNWAY 14R.
D-EABC FLIEGE IN DIE KONTROLLZONE ÜBER November PISTE 14L 14R QNH 1017 DANACH FLIEGE IN DEN Queranflug PISTE 14R. D-EABC ENTERING CONTROL ZONE VIA November RUNWAY 14L 14R QNH 1017 THEREAFTER JOINING base RUNWAY 14R.
D-EABC November HÖHE 1500 FUSS. D-EABC November ALTITUDE 1500 FEET.
D-EABC Queranflug PISTE 14R D-EABC base RUNWAY 14R.
D-EABC Endanflug PISTE 14R. D-EABC final RUNWAY 14R.
D-EABC WIND 130 GRAD 4 KNOTEN PISTE 14R LANDUNG FREI. D-EABC WIND 130 DEGREES 4 KNOTS RUNWAY 14R CLEARED TO LAND.
D-EABC PISTE 14R LANDUNG FREI. D-EABC RUNWAY 14R CLEARED TO LAND.
D-EABC RUFEN SIE Köln Rollkontrolle 121.72. D-EABC CONTACT Köln Ground 121.72.
D-EABC RUFE Köln Rollkontrolle 121.72. D-EABC CONTACTING Köln Ground 121.72.
Köln/Bonn Rollkontrolle (Ground)
Köln Rollkontrolle D-EABC. Köln Ground D-EABC.
D-EABC Köln Rollkontrolle, ROLLEN SIE ZUM Abstellplatz der allgemeinen Luftfahrt ÜBER Tango. D-EABC Köln Ground, TAXI TO GAT VIA Tango.
D-EABC ROLLE ZUM Abstellplatz der allgemeinen Luftfahrt ÜBER Tango. D-EABC TAXIING TO GAT VIA Tango.


Quellen

Kategorie:ATC_Trainingsdokument Kategorie:Piloten_Trainingsdokument